The genus Channa is native to Asia and the genus Parachanna to Africa. New Delhi: A team of scientists have determined that a species of snakehead fish discovered in the Western Ghats in Kerala belongs to a unique family distinct from fish species found in the world. The family also lacks a structure called a suprabranchial organ, which allows Channidae snakeheads to breathe air. Upper image ... (Kalimantan). Scientists Ralf Britz (currently with Germany’s Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden) and Rajeev Raghavan of the Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies – who were part of the team that formally described the fish – were puzzled when they first laid eyes on the Gollum snakehead. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- At 109 million years ago, the Indian plate had already broken away from Gondwana and begun drifting north towards Eurasia. Snakehead Fish is a kind of predatory fish that live in fresh water.It is known that this fish is very rich in albumin, a type of protein which is important.This kind of fish is prepared in curries and soups. It tastes awesome with rice and idlis. Taxonomic families are often large and diverse; For example, the human family, Hominidae, includes chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas. With its long, scaly body and delicate, veil-like fins, the Gollum snakehead captured quite some attention when discovered last year in south India. The saga began in early 2018, when researcher Rajeev Raghavan, a study co-author and fish researcher at Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, spotted a post on Indian social media from a person who found and photographed an odd fish retrieved from their backyard well. Johnson likens the dragon snakeheads to a primitive eel-like fish named Protoanguilla palau, discovered in an undersea cave in Palau, which he helped describe in a 2012 paper. They used a nano-CT scanner to take 3D photographs of its skeleton and internal organs and compared these with the features of 14 other closely-related species (including snakehead and ray-finned fishes). The fish varieties generally featured in the vlogs are grouper, red snapper, rohu, catla, king fish, mangrove jack, barracuda, barramundi, sting ray, different varieties of snakehead, among others. But questions still remained. Astonishingly, the Gollum snakehead differed in five of the six main features that define channids. “We think this is the most exciting discovery in the fish world of the last decade,” says Britz, lead author of a study published recently in Scientific Reports. This fish is best kept in water at 24-28°C/75-82°F, pH 6.0-7.0 and GH to 10. There are more than 50 species of Channidae snakeheads, which live in streams and lakes throughout Asia and Africa. An invasive fish species that can breathe air and survive on land has been found in Georgia for the first time. The dragon snakeheads have “a whole series of primitive characteristics,” and are rightly called “living fossils,” says David Johnson, an ichthyologist at Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., who wasn’t involved in the paper. Named after the creature âGollumâ from the epic fantasy novel The Lord of The Rings, authored by J.R.R. âItâs my cameramanâs number that I have given on my Facebook page. Mysterious snakehead fish from Kerala found. A snakehead fish discovered in Malappuram in Kerala from the Channidae family of predatory freshwater dwellers was named Gollum, a character in âThe Lord of the Ringsâ. Raghavan sent the photo to Britz, who had “no idea what it was,” Britz says—not the species, genus, or family. Both the Gollum snakehead and its sister species, the Mahabali snakehead, are thought to dwell in underground freshwater aquifers connected to paddy fields and open wells (that are tapped for everyday water needs) in Kerala’s Western Ghats. Scientists find that the Gollum snakehead â a small fish that dwells in underground water systems in Kerala â belongs to a new but ancient family of bony fishes, Aenigmachannidae. It is an eel-shaped fish known more widely as the Gollum snakehead that was recently described from these pockets of subterranean water after it was flushed out of the aquifers following the devastating floods that hit Kerala in 2018. With its long, scaly body and delicate, veil-like fins, the Gollum snakehead captured quite some attention when discovered last year in south India. However, at just around 10 centimetres long, the Gollum snakehead is barely a threat. Studies of the fish’s anatomy help show that this species (and its sister species) belong to a previously unknown taxonomic family, Aenigmachannidae. Seer fish, kingfish, bluefin trevally, snakehead fish and yellow catfish are some of the popular items. This, along with the care they shower on their babies (such as fiercely guarding their floating eggs and mouthbrooding), has made them a very successful group. Researchers have discovered a new family of eel-like fish, named dragon snakeheads, which live in underground waters in southern India. Almost nothing is known of the origin of these species or their ecology.”, The recognition of Aenigmachannidae as a new family of bony fishes comes six years after the description of Kryptoglanidae, another unique family of freshwater fish endemic to Kerala, said Raghavan. Discovering a new family of fish—the taxonomic category above genus and species—is very uncommon, says study leader Ralf Britz, an ichthyologist at Senckenberg Natural History Collections, part of the Museum of Zoology in Dresden, Germany. The drifting landmass, therefore, was already home to Aenigmachannas (where it must have lived alongside some of the last dinosaurs), and isolation due to continental breakups probably gave rise to these unique, ancient fish. A large part of what is now India, along with Madagascar – called the Indian plate – was part of the supercontinent Gondwana more than 120 million years ago. Here is a simple gravy recipe of this fish without adding coconut to it. It flaunted some odd features: a uniform, cinnamon brown and long, eel-like body, unlike other snakeheads. Unlike many fish, they can thrive in low-oxygen waters thanks to a special breathing organ (the suprabranchial chamber) that allows them to survive on swallowed air. Too successful, in some cases. Though the team went on to classify the fish as a new species, under a new genus (Aenigmachanna), they retained it in the only existing family of snakeheads (Channidae). Recently, a new study conducted by scientists in Kerala found that the Snakehead Gollum is different from the rest of its fellow Snakehead fish. 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC. Also, a Scientist named Ralf Britz says, that this fish is the most exciting discovery of fishing world. An estimated six million wells draw from this underground reserve, Britz says. Yet when intense volcanic activity may have killed even the mighty dinosaurs over the millions of years that followed, how did tiny Aenigmachannas survive? And officials are warning anyone who comes into contact with the â¦ “I can’t begin to understand why,” Johnson says. Genetic analyses (of gene fragments as well as whole mitochondrial genomes) also point to this pattern: that the Gollum snakehead forms a distinct “sister” lineage alongside other snakeheads and not with or under them. This family includes only two species, one of which is named the Gollum snakehead, after the subterranean Lord of the Rings character. Native range: This snakehead has a markedly disjunctive distribution. These primitive fish â¦ There is some justification for calling it a snakehead ‘living fossil’ and it is this unique combination of primitive characters and a few weird derived features that lead us to consider coming up with a new family for it.”. Otherwise people keep calling to meet me in person!â says Abdul Sami, 34, with a la But having a snakehead from a subterranean habitat is an exciting find. This new family is also ancient. The northern snakehead can grow up to â¦ The area where the fish live, the Western Ghats of southern India, is a biodiversity hot spot. To put this in perspective: only after the Indian plate collided with Eurasia around 55 million years later were the Himalayas formed. The Gollum snakehead could well be a living fossil. Besides, the restaurant serves freshwater fish dishes like fried lake fishes, morass peera or needlefish cooked in coconut, shrimp fry, lobster, fried â¦ Tolkien, the Aenigmachanna gollum was studied by scientists from India, Germany, the â¦ “The presence of two unique endemic families of freshwater fishes in Kerala is unparalleled, and indicates the exceptional diversity and endemicity of fishes in this part of the world.”, ‘Annihilation through politeness’: Why Rahul Gandhi’s TV interview with Arnab Goswami went belly-up, The Indian judiciary didn’t suddenly decline in the Modi years – it was always broken, Supreme Court agrees to examine if it can decide on Emergency’s constitutional validity. Now, scientists have found that it is genetically distinct from other snakehead fish worldwide and sports so many unique features that it warrants its very own family, Aenigmachannidae. Channa (snakeheads of Asia, Malaysia, and Indonesia) Parachanna (African snakeheads) In the summer of 2002 and again in late spring 2004, Channa argus, the northern snakehead, generated national media attention when anglers caught this fish in a pond in Maryland and, more recently, in the Potomac River in Maryland and Virginia. Emperor snakehead (Channa marulioides) The Emperor is capable of reaching 65cm/26â, rendering it suitable only for the species tank, or at very best with other large tank mates â although a very large tank would be needed anyway! Could the Gollum snakehead turn out to be entirely different from other snakeheads? A computer-rendered image of the skeleton of the Gollum snakehead. Snakeheads (or channids, family Channidae) are predatory freshwater dwellers. The fish, for instance, does not sport long canine teeth nor a suprabranchial chamber as channids usually do. Watching them can be mesmerizing, Britz says—they move “like a veil in the wind.”. Their subterranean natures may have helped, says Pethiyagoda. Shortly thereafter, another researcher found a second species in that genus as well, based on a single specimen—the Mahabali snakehead. Find here details of companies selling Fish Seeds, for your purchase requirements. Snakeheads (or channids, family Channidae) are predatory freshwater dwellers. It possibly evolved at least 109 million years ago (when the last dinosaurs still roamed the world), after the Indian plate drifted away from the supercontinent of Gondwana. (Related: World’s largest cavefish discovered in India.). The newly-discovered Gollum snakehead fish from Kerala may have lived alongside dinosaurs Scientists have found that the species, which possibly evolved at â¦ It has been found that the fish is not just unique for its delicate scale like fins but is also a living fossil. “What makes it really special is that it has an unexpectedly large number of primitive characters in relation to Channidae,” wrote lead author Britz in an email to Mongabay-India. After all, scientists discovered it only last year. Dragon Snakeheads is a fish, which belongs to family of eel-like fish. This probably helps them get around in small underground chambers. How a researcher found a snow trout near the Thar desert – and why it’s vital to study it further, Watch: Humpback whale spotted in New York’s Hudson River in the USA, Watch: Delhi Police adds yet another layer of barricades on state borders to keep farmers out, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies. It is possibly highly restricted in distribution. Kerala has the largest number of these vloggers, followed by Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra. There, late at night, they found Gollum snakeheads surfacing into a flooded rice paddy. The unusual finding was reported in a scientific paper published in international animal taxonomy journal Zootaxa on Thursday. These unique traits include a shortened swim bladder and fewer vertebrae with ribs, features that show the dragon snakeheads are less specialized than regular snakeheads. Britz says it’s unclear why the species have these traits, but suggests it may be because they are not exclusively subterranean. These primitive fish are a type of “living fossil” and may have diverged from their nearest relatives more than a hundred million years ago. The genus Channa is native to Asia and the genus Parachanna to Africa. The giant snakehead is also a good fish to eat, and is often served in Chinese restaurants. By plotting all these morphological differences (and similarities) between the 15 fish species, the team concluded that the Gollum snakehead – whose many features are far more “primitive” than other snakeheads – must have split from other snakeheads long before the Asian and African species that we see today came into being. In Indonesia and the Philippines are also much consumed either fried, grilled or with soup. Explained: A 100 million-year-old fish in Kerala, named after a character of the Lord of the Rings Meet Aenigmachanna gollum, a dragon snakehead fish that lives in underground aquifers, and which first announced its surfacing in social media posts in 2018 Researchers have discovered a new family of eel-like fish, named dragon snakeheads, which live in underground waters in southern India. These primitive fish are a type of âliving fossilâ and may have diverged from their nearest relatives more than a hundred million years ago. Giant Snakehead. Besides, dragon snakeheads is native to Southern India. Rainbow snakehead (Channa bleheri) A curry made with this fish and tapioca is a delicacy in Kerala. His genetic analysis shows they may have diverged from their nearest relatives, snakeheads in the family Channidae, before Africa and India separated and spread apart 120 million years ago, Britz says. Northern snakehead fish This month, an invasive northern snakehead fish was found in a pond in Georgia. It turns out that the Aenigmachannids split from other snakeheads at least around 109 million years ago. MANGALURU: A group of Indian and British scientists have found a mysterious new species of âsnakehead fishâ lurking in the subterranean waters of Kerala. Dragon snakeheads—strange new underground fish—discovered in India, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/10/new-fish-family-dragon-snakeheads-found-india.html, researcher found a second species in that genus as well, Related: World’s largest cavefish discovered in India. ‘National Jiju’: Singer Nick Jonas reacts to nickname earned in India for marrying Priyanka Chopra, Watch: Singer Lucky Ali sings his famous song ‘O Sanam’ at an impromptu event in Goa, ‘Love jihad’: UP officials deny 22-year-old Hindu woman suffered miscarriage in protection home, Watch: How the side berth in air-conditioned trains is being modified for greater comfort. This air-breathing trick has enabled one species, the northern snakehead, to spread far and become an invasive nuisance in North America and elsewhere. Britz travelled to India after Raghavan and other colleagues had collected more specimens, to scientifically describe the fish. But when Britz and his colleagues performed further research on the anatomy and genetics of these fishes, he found they belong in a new family entirely. Watch: How many of the most popular music videos of 2020 on YouTube have you watched? This kind of fish prefers to live in deep into the sea. These strange, long-bodied fish, which dwell in aquifers of porous rock, are rarely seen, only coming to the surface after flooding from heavy rains. The dishes that use striped snakehead this are eaten with rice are very popular in Bangladesh and West Bengal. Snakehead Gollum fish was discovered in Kerala and named after the famous character from The Lord of the Rings. “In a sense, it is the platypus of the snakehead world. It is the only genus in the family Aenigmachannidae, or dragon snakeheads. Subterranean Fish Named âGollumâ Belongs to a New Family The freshwater fish belongs to a never-before-described taxonomic family, making it â¦ Like the dragon snakeheads, this previously unknown family of eels has ancient traits that have been lost in its relatives, and it has changed relatively little over time. Researchers have discovered a new family of eel-like fish, named dragon snakeheads, which live in underground waters in southern India. The Gollum snakehead, named after the subterranean character in Lord of the Rings, is one of two species in a newfound taxonomic family of fishes. The fish varieties generally featured in the vlogs are grouper, red snapper, rohu, catla, king fish, mangrove jack, barracuda, barramundi, sting ray, different varieties of snakehead, among others. “It also signals that new light needs to be shone on the other fishes of Kerala that seem to live in aquifers, such as Horaglanis and Kryptoglanis. The Gollum snakehead warranted its very own snakehead family, Aenigmachannidae. It contains two species, both of which are largely restricted to subterranean habitats in southwestern India, namely in the Western Ghats foothills in the state of Kerala. Get latest info on Fish Seeds, suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, traders, wholesale suppliers with Fish â¦ In all, scientists have discovered 10 species of subterranean fish in the aquifers there that provide water for millions of people. Who is Ragini Tiwari whose video threatening protesting farmers has gone viral? Chennai-native Om Prakash, of âOm is fishingâ, who works with a BPO in Bengaluru, specialises in Malabar snakehead (vaaha), a âvulnerable species in the IUCN Red Listâ, found only in Kerala. “Aenigmachanna is by far the most important freshwater fish to be discovered in the 30 years I have been a student of South Asian fishes,” commented scientist Rohan Pethiyagoda who studies snakeheads in Sri Lanka, and was not involved in the study published last week in Scientific Reports. Britz says the family’s common name is fitting because “everyone who sees a photo of the fish is somehow reminded of a dragon.”. While that is very exciting (it is uncommon to find a whole new family of fish), what is intriguing is the ancient story this new family tells. An initial study, published in Zootaxa in May 2019, identified the fish as a new species and genus, named Aenigmachanna gollum—the Gollum snakehead. Dragon snakeheads also have eyes and a reddish brown pigmentation—traits uncommon in subterranean fish, many of which are white and eyeless. Common snakeheads fish curry is a delicacy in Kerala and are in great demand in the domestic market. What it is likely to be, is threatened. In Malaysia and Singapore, they are known locally as the toman, while in Indonesia they are called gabus or haruan (not to be confused with another species of smaller snakehead known as the common snakehead also called haruan), and are cultured in fish ponds and reservoirs as game fish because they put up a strong fight when hooked. The name red or redline snakehead is commonly applied to juveniles of this species in the aquarium fish trade. This has lowered the water table and could imperil some of the newfound obscure species that live there. This takes us back to an era when only two supercontinents existed in the world. All rights reserved. Another breakthrough came when Britz and others visited a farmer’s field north of Kochi, a town in Kerala. The Gollum snakehead (Aenigmachanna gollum), a new genus and species, described from Kerala, is the first subterranean species of Channidae, the â¦ More distributional and ecological information about the fish is lacking. To find out, Britz, Raghavan and their colleagues deconstructed the body parts of the fish. Aenigmachanna is a genus of ray-finned fish in the order Ananbantiformes. Its swim bladder – an internal gas-filled organ that helps bony fish stay afloat in water – is far shorter too. The team estimated the age of the family using fish fossils and simulation algorithms. â Sea Fish Found in India. In the United States, accidentally-introduced four-foot-long snakeheads have invaded ecosystems and now bear the ignominious status of “injurious wildlife”. Why such living fossils survive without diversifying much remains a mystery. 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